Wine fermentations are dominated by Saccharomyces yeast. However, dozens of non-Saccharomyces yeast genera can be found in grape musts and in the early and intermediate stages of wine fermentation, where they co-exist with S. cerevisiae. The diversity of non-Saccharomyces species is determinant for the sensorial attributes of the resulting wines, both directly (by producing aroma impact compounds) and indirectly (modulating the performance of Saccharomyces). Many research groups worldwide are exploring the great diversity of wine yeasts to exploit their metabolic potential to improve wine flavor or to prevent wine spoilage. In this work, we share a new dataset from a wide ITS amplicon survey of 272 wine samples, and we perform a preliminary exploration to build a catalogue of 242 fungal and yeast genera detectable in wine samples, estimating global figures of their prevalence and relative abundance patterns across wine samples. Thus, our mycobiome survey provides a broad measure of the yeast diversity potentially found in wine fermentations; we hope that the wine yeast research community finds it useful, and we also want to encourage further discussion on the advantages and limitations that meta-taxonomic studies may have in wine research and industry.
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